Cuneiform Tablet, List of work days requirede by low status male workers for a variety of heavy agricultural tasks.

Unidentified Babylonian maker, Umma, Mesopotamia

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2300 BCE

Terracotta

Overall: 20 1/2 × 7 7/8 in. (52 × 20 cm)

Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College: Gift of The Dartmouth Scientific Association

23.1.7186

Geography/Culture

Asia, West Asia, Arabian Peninsula, Iraq

Period

3000-2000 BCE

Object Name

Written Communication

Classification

Near East

Not on view

Inscription

Incised, obverse, in cuneiform [translation]: "x workgang days. / x of land harrowed x times: / 54 workgang days. / 15 iku of land harrowed two times (= 5.4 hectares): / 20 workgang days. / 1,575 sar of reed (= 5.67 hectares), each (erin2 worker) plucked 15 sar (per day) (= 540 m2), / their labor is 105 days. / 690 sar of reed (= 2.48 hectares), each (erin2 worker) plucked 20 sar (per day) (= 720 m2), / their labor is 34 1/2 days. / 810 sar of apple trees (= 2.92 hectares), each (erin2 worker): 10 sar (per day) (=360 m2), / their labor is 81 days. / 1008 sar of apple trees (= 3.63 hectares), each (erin2 worker): 12 sar (per day) (= 432 m2), / their labor is 84 days. / 480 sar of apple trees (= 1.73 hectares), each (erin2 worker): 15 sar (per day) (= 540 m2), / their labor is 32 days." Incised, reverse, in cuneiform [translation]: "182 sar (earth) dug (= 6,552 m2), each (erin2 worker): 7 sar (per day) (= 2 m2), / their labor is 26 days. / 1,040 sar of reed (= 3.74 hectares), each (erin2 worker) plucked 12 sar (per day) (= 432 m2), / their labor is 86 days. / 1,344 sar of thorny weed (= 4.84 hectares), each (erin2 worker) cut 12 sar (per day) (= 432 m2), / their labor is 112 days. / 630 sar thorny weed (= 2.27 hectares) each (erin2 worker) cut 15 sar (per day) (= 540 m2), / their labor is 42 days. / ... guruš workers bound reed / ... hired workers: 6 sila3 each / ... 5 guruš workers, ox drivers, and ??? / ... ... / ... ... / ... ... " Stamped seal, in cuneiform [translation]: "Ur-Am3-ma, / the scribe, / the son (of) Na-DI"

Course History

ANTH 39, Archaeology of the Middle East, Jesse Casana, Fall 2019

ANTH 12.2, The Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Jason Herrmann, Spring 2013

REL 81, Dickinson Distinguished Scholar Seminar: Orientalism and the Origins of Religion, Susannah Heschel, Fall 2012

Exhibition History

From Discovery to Dartmouth: The Assyrian Reliefs at the Hood Museum of Art, 1856-2006, Alvin P. Gutman Gallery, Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, October 19, 2006-June 17, 2007.

Publication History

Widell, Magnus, Ur III Economy and Bureaucracy: The Neo-Sumerian Cuneiform Tablets in the Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College (I). Orient: Reports of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan, 55 (1), 2019.

Object has been 3-D scanned by Jason Herrmann in 2016 for a publicly accessible 3-D model. Link is below: https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/cuneiform-tablet-23-1-7186-0485bcc1c5ac4599b8f7918e1dd10399

Magnus Widell, From Discovery to Dartmouth: The Assyrian Reliefs at the Hood Museum of Art, 1856-2006, A Selection of Cuneiform Tablets from the Hood Museum of Art's Collection, Hanover, New Hampshire: Dartmouth College, 2006, no. 10.

Benjamin R. Foster, Yale University, "Texts and Fragments," Journal of Cuneiform Studies, April 31, 1979, p. 236.

Provenance

Dartmouth Scientific Association; given to present collection, 1923.

This record was created from historic documentation and may not have been reviewed by a curator; it may be inaccurate or incomplete.

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