The Epic of American Civilization: Modern Migration of the Spirit (Panel 18)

José Clemente Orozco, Mexican, 1883 - 1949




Overall: 127 1/2 × 126 1/4 in. (323.9 × 320.7 cm)

Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth: Commissioned by the Trustees of Dartmouth College



Place Made: Mexico, North America


20th century

Object Name


Research Area


On view


Signed, east wall (Panel 11): J. C. Orozco / Febrero 13, 1934

Course History

ARTH 63.01/LACS 48.01, Mexican Muralism, Mary Coffey, Fall 2022

ARTH 63.01/LACS 48.01, Mexican Muralism, Mary Coffey, Fall 2022

ARTH 63.01/LACS 48.01, Mexican Muralism, Mary Coffey, Fall 2022

ARTH 63.01/LACS 48.01, Mexican Muralism, Mary Coffey, Fall 2022

ARTH 63.01/LACS 48.01, Mexican Muralism, Mary Coffey, Fall 2022

GEOG 31.01, Postcolonial Geographies, Erin Collins, Fall 2022

WRIT 2.06, Composition and Research I, Doug Moody, Fall 2022

Writing Program 5.08, Reviewing Ourselves: Critical Writing and Personal Values, Bill Craig, Winter 2023

Latino Studies 37.01, Migrant Lives and Labor, Doug Moody, Spring 2023

Geography 31.01, Postcolonial Geographies, Erin Collins, Fall 2023

Exhibition History

Public Art, Reserve Corridor, Baker-Berry Library, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, 1934.

Publication History

Peggy Rosenthal, The Poets ~ Jesus: How He Figures After 2000 Years, New York: Oxford University Press, March 2000

Jeanne Siegel, Painting After Pollock: Structures of Influence, Singapore: Overseas Publishers Association, The Gordon and Breach Publishing Group, 1999, ill. p. 162

Kirk Varnedoe with Pepe Karmel, Jackson Pollock, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1998, pp. 26-27, figs. 11 + 12.

H. H. Arnason.-4th ed./Marla Prather, revising author, History of Modern Art, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1998, p. 430, ill. p. 430.

Edward J. Sullivan, ed., Latin American Art in the 20th Century, London: Phaidon Press, 1996, 352 p.

Katharine Baetjer, Lisa Mintz Messinger, Nan Rosenthal, The Jackson Pollock Sketchbooks in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997, ill. p. 81

Jaroslav Pelikan, The Illustrated Jesus Through the Centuries, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997, ill. p. 230

Vivette Porges, Joshua Simon and Robert Sullivan, Who Do You Say That I Am?: Reflections on Jesus in Our World Today, New York: Macmillan, 1996, ill. p. 33

Mike Venezia, Getting to Know the World's Greatest Artists: Jackson Pollock, Chicago: Children's Press, 1994, p.23.

Liz Dawtrey, Tobey Jackson, Mary Masterton, Pam Meecham, Paul Wood, eds., Investigating Modern Art, New Haven and London: Yale University Press in association with The Open University, The Arts Council of England and the Tate Gallery, 1996, ill. p. 122

Desmond Rochfort, Mexican Muralists: Orozco, Rivera, Siqueiros, Singapore: Laurence King Publishing, 1993, pp.99-119, ill. p. 108

Frederick Hartt, Art: A History of Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1993

Master Works of Mexican Art in the World, Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Institute Matias Romero for Diplomatic Studies, 1993

Robert Atkins, Art Spoke: A Guide to Modern Ideas, Movements, and Buzzwords, 1848-1944, New York: Abbeville Press, 1993, ill. p. 138.

William H. Forbes, The Makers of Mexico, Worldwise, Hanover, N.H.: South-North News Service

Edmund Burke Feldman, Varieties of Visual Experience, 4th ed., New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1992, pp. 45-47, ill. p. 46

Claude Cernuschi, Jackson Pollock: "Psychoanalytic Drawings", Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1992, p. 119, ill. p.119.

Roger E. Wiehe and Zaitchik, Human Values: Perspectives on Six Themes, Madison: William C. Brown Co. Publishers, 1992

Images of the American Experience, A Multicultural Art Perspective for Grades 7 & 8, Brooklyn: New York City Board of Eduction, 1992

Page Smith, Killing the Spirit: Higher Education in America , New York: Viking, Published by the Penguin Group, 1990, Cover

Pictures of Dartmouth. Editors Bradley and Grantham, Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England

Wolfgang Baur, Welt und Umwelt der Bibel - Redaktion, Christis in der Kunst der Neuzeit, Stuttgart, Germany: Belser Verlag, s.o., 4/ 2000, ill. p. 80.

Robert Elinor, Buddha and Christ: Images of Wholeness, 1st. ed., Trumbull, Connecticut: Weatherhill, Inc., 2000, ill. p. 177.

Marek Bartelik, The Life and Art of Adja Yunkers: To Invent a Garden, New York: Hudson Hill Press, 2000, 140 p.

Variuos authors, Jesus: 2000 Years of Faith, Lucerne; Freiburg: Herder Verlag, October 1999, 240 pp., ill. p. 196.

American Art Magazine, James Oles, Noguchi in Mexico: International Themes for a Working-Class Market, Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Summer 2001, pp. 10-30, ill. p. 26, no. 12.

Editorial Clio, Orozco segun Orozco, (Video-in Spanish), Delagacion Coyoacan, Mexico: Editorial Clio, 1998, approx. 43 minutes.

Marjorie L. Harth, Jose Clemente Orozco: Prometheus, Pomona, California: Pomona College Museum of Art, 2001, pp. 39-45, ill. p. 43, fig. 27.

Clinton C. Gardner, Beyond Belief: Discovering Christianity's New Paradigm, White River Junction, Vermont: White River Press, 2008, 263 pp., cover ill (color).

Nichola Tucker, The Epic of American Civilization as Performative Epic: Student Viewers as Heroes and the Re-Enactment of History, The Collegiate Journal of Art, Spring 2008, Volume IV, 2008, pp. 97-110, ill. p. 101, fig. 4.

Jose Clemente Orozco: Pintura y verdad, Jalisco, Mexico: Instituto Cultural Cabanas, 2010, pp.166-181, ill. p.177.

Mary K. Coffey, Sharon Lorenzo, Lisa Mintz Messinger, Stephen Polcari, Men of Fire, Jose Clemente Orozco and Jackson Pollock, Hanover: Trustees of Dartmouth College, 2012, ill. p.52, page xiv, figure 8.

Margit Kern, Transkulturelle Imaginationen des Opfers in der Fruhen Neuzeit, Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag, Neue Grunstrabe 17, 468 pp., ill. p. 339.

Elizabeth L. Langhorne, Jackson Pollock: Kunst als Sinnsuche: Abstraktion, All-Over, Action Painting, Wallerstein: Hawel-Verlag, 2013, 468 pp., ill. p. 42.

John R. Stomberg, The Hood Now: Art and Inquiry at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire: Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, 2019, p. 155, ill. plate no. 86.

Warren Carter, ed., Art after Empire: From Colonialism to Globalisation, Manchester: Manchester University Press in association with the Open University, 2018, pp. 84-89, ill. p. 87, fig. 2.24.

Brandon Taylor, Make it Modern: A History of Art in the 20th Century, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2022, pp. 202-203, ill. p. 203.


Commissioned by the Trustees of Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, 1932.

This record is part of an active database that includes information from historic documentation that may not have been recently reviewed. Information may be inaccurate or incomplete. We also acknowledge some language and imagery may be offensive, violent, or discriminatory. These records reflect the institution’s history or the views of artists or scholars, past and present. Our collections research is ongoing.

We welcome questions, feedback, and suggestions for improvement. Please contact us at: